Green Waste that consists of Chlorophyll known as low C/N ratio material such as tree leaves, hedge pruning, grass cuttings etc, will putrefy when land filled, containerized or composted under anaerobic conditions creating Greenhouse Gases, other materials such as food Waste also known as low C/N ratio material will also putrefy when land filled or composted under anaerobic conditions creating Greenhouse Gases.
• GHG emissions are abated from composting activities in back yard / high rise dwelling complexes and commercial composting activities with the use of the Aerochamber technology.
• The Aerochamber Technology is a domestic, semi commercial and large scale composting system, designed to biodegrade total household and garden organic waste, known as Putrescible Waste (Aerobically).
• The Municipal Solid Waste Stream (MSW) known as total household generated waste, has a high recyclable component that is contaminated with putrescible waste that could be retrieved with the use of the Aerochamber technology saving large quantities of recyclable material
• There is a parallel between the Biodegradation rate, and putrification producing Greenhouse Gas Emissions when biodegrading putrescible waste from the MSW stream.
• A low Biodegradation rate is directly associated with (Low oxygen availability) which produces large amounts of putrification, associated with Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
• A high Biodegradation rate which is directly associated with (High oxygen availability) as with the Aerochamber technology which produces close to ambient levels of oxygen to the centre of the composting pile producing minimal amounts of Co2 emissions, known as biogenic emissions, (natural occurring emissions).
The results of two Aerochamber prototype composters tested for a twelve Month test evaluation Biodegraded approximately seven times their volume capacity of waste in a twelve Month period using putrescible waste, Indicating high oxygen availability, producing natural (biogenic emissions).
• To evaluate a composters performance to abate Greenhouse Gas Emissions, high oxygen levels are required when biodegrading Putrescible Waste from the MSW stream.
• Domestic composters currently on the market that have had some test evaluations confirm that they cannot biodegrade Putrescible Waste without creating putrification creating Greenhouse Gases, and the Biodegradation rates that have been recorded are less than one times their volume capacity for a twelve Month period, indicating (Low oxygen availability, producing Greenhouse Emissions. (Anthropogenic Emissions)
• Greenhouse Gases are the results of anaerobic microorganisms associated with organic Waste, and not specifically the Waste material, Composting is an Aerobic Micro Biological process, once the moisture content of the organic Waste is brought to an appropriate level and the mass aerated, Aerobic microbiological metabolism speeds up, Energy is liberated by biological oxidation of part of the Carbon, some of this energy is used in metabolism and the rest is given off as heat.
• The microorganisms responsible for the Aerobic biodegradation of organic Waste biodegrading organic matter into (humus) compost material require a warm moist Aerobic Micro- climate environment to mobilize and proliferate, under these aerobic conditions no Methane emissions are produced, and only minimal amounts of Co2 are produced known as Biogenic emissions. (Carbon Abatement)
• Other factors that influence CO2-e emissions is the C/N ratio of the organic Waste stream, All organic Waste has a C/N ratio variation, the best for composting is 30-1 C/N ratio, however with the MSW stream there is a variety of different C/N ratio€™so from each household, depending on each household eating habits.
• It is the Nitrogen content of the organic waste that is primarily responsible for Greenhouse gas Emissions, and not specifically the Carbon content, e.g. if a pile of Carbonaceous material such as newspapers, tree branches, sawdust, cardboard, and other wooden products were composted, the biodegradation rate would be near zero, and there would be no Greenhouse Gas emissions produced taking years to biodegrade, which would involve a Macro Biological rotting process, producing no Greenhouse Gas Emissions
• Woody vegetation that has lignified, is carbon sequestered by nature, and is not suitable for microbial activity to survive the prime factors involved would include the low moisture content, a large particle size, and the wide range C/N ratio.
• As aerobic microbial activity abates greenhouse gas emissions, they require a balanced C/N ratio, a warm moist aerobic micro-climate environment to mobilize and proliferate.Economics & Environmental